Spanish[ img - PE-flag.png ]

Responsibilities - and some limits

Condition for expropriations:   "Necessity and public utility" (ref. Constitution PE §70)
Consequences:   The "Southern Central Macroregion" can build their Apurimac-Ayacucho-Ica railway - if the Macroregion decide.
Alternatively too a commonwealth of Regions /Municipalities along the route - too can do it.
- and the regions of Cajamarca, Lambayeque and Piura together can construct a railway fromCelendín to Bayovar - if they desire

Infrastructure is everything as connect a country, a city, a society
Infrastructure of a country - any type of infrastructure - is the responsibility of society, and this is to be established by its elected or non-elected authorities.
A free society cannot escape from this responsibility by concessions, privatizations or similar 'Neo-Liberal tricks',
because infrastructure is what unite and connect the country /society - and therefore it is property of the society.

task of the mine company:
[ img - trainLoader-silo4.jpg ]
load wagons by silo and hopper
or load wagons by frontloader
[ img - trainloading2.jpg ]

A NODE is a point in a infrastructure network - or between two networks
Within a node the owner has the authority to organize as he wants - but in accordance with the laws and rules of society - of course.
A landowner can make his track where he wants over his fields.   A districtal, provincial or regional authority can place its roads, their own trams and railroads.   A "macro-region" can do the same.
The mines, who have bought, rented or granted their land, decide within the same plot. In principle they can exploit and sell as they want - and pay the State for what is extracted.
A payment in relation of what type of ore is mined - naturally.
All equipment and buildings inside the mine lot is: Decision of the Mining Company. For example: Where to lay down their own RAILS for trains within the land of the mine itself. Where and how to load the wagons. By mobile rolling equipment - or by mechanized fixed installations of silos, hoppers and transportbands etc.
This is NOT the responsibility of society.

The surrounding society
Mining companies - regardless of their country of origin - are and have to be a natural part of society where they work, and they therefore must follow the same rules and common laws of society.
Inside a country the society itself alternatively a commonwealth of Regions/Municipalities as well.has to build the infrastructure, which the society needs: in this case the rails for trains - too mine trains. The responsibility of the ENAFER authority will start at the exit gate of the mine, and ENAFER will direct the train on all its network.

unload wagons in the port
[ img - unloader.jpg ]
by turning over the whole wagon
or dump it over the side
[ img side-dumper.jpg ]
Who owns locomotive and wagons IS NOT business of ENAFER.
Nor is ENAFER going to drive these trains. Like trucks and buses on the highways, the trains are privately owned and come with their own driver.
The trains will pay tolls per ton, per train and/or per kilometer - and not for the value of the minerals.
The rule for everyone: That man as pays, he decides - to rent, to buy own train, to create a "United Transport Company" together with other mining companies or simply to hire a professional transport company - - - but all trains technically need to comply with ENAFER standards, just as any truck needs to meet the MTC regulations for transit.
If the final customer of the ore lives in Asia, the delivery of the ore is in Asia. For example: A contract with India to deliver 20 million tons of iron per year. This iron needs to be extracted from a mine in the mountains and then pass through a transport chain and perhaps some processings before being delivered to a port in India.

The port and its equipment
Transportation from the mine is by rail and ends at an export port. The mine decides which port for exportation, because the mine is the owner of the cargo. It is also the responsibility of the mine to organize reception of the mineral ore in the port, and there store it until a mineral bulker can arrive.
That include too a system to empty the wagons and deposit the material in silos. And for this reason the wagons are normally built as tippers which are to be emptied directly down into the store from a position above the silos - or alternatively into a receptor hopper and then lifted by a belt conveyor and dropped into a silo.
Silo storage requires another mechanical system to extract the ore bulk from the silo,for then to pass a shiploader with a capacity of a few thousand tons per hour to be able to load an ore bulker in a few days.

A long voyage over the seas
red - white ensign sailing on the sea
[ img - dryBulker.jpg ]
medium size bulk carrier
Well loaded, the ship will sail for some months to cross the sea and reach her destination, where she will unload the ore and return. With distances 15-20,000kM - two times to return, there are probably a maximum of 4-6 trips per year for each ship.
Peru hold 2000 kilometers of coastline and 700,000 square kilometers which is its MARITIME TERRITORY = as is more than 50% of the Peruvian land area.
However, Peru does NOT have any "MARITIME AWARENESS". In the Peruvian ship roster there are around 30 ships available - and none of them are mineral carriers - and naturally all the 30 ships are occupied with other business.
It is a situation a bit sad. This not being able to transport their own products, has as consequence, that Peru (= the Peruvian mines) need to hire foreign carriers (bulkers) to make their oversea "delivery".
Fortunately, this situation is foreseen in Law 28,583 - "Law for Reactivation and Promotion of the National Merchant Marine"
As a result of the Law, there is the option, that these foreign carriers, who have ships available, can fly their ships with the Peruvian flag, by registering their ships in the Peruvian registry. This transfer will give certain advantages to Peru. Especially if a congress decides to declare minerals from the mines as Peruvian, until delivered to the client abroad - or alternatively until the mineral has obtained some added value by processing in Peru.
It seems worth to compaire with "Jones Act", USA = Promotion and protection of the National Merchant Marine - of USA

Processes placed between the mine and its export port.

pellets - or sponge iron
[ img - pellets.jpg ]
a simple process giving pure iron
Surely the mine is going to organize a refining process.
They do this simply because a mine does not want to pay for the transport of tons of earth and stones that have no value. That assumption is valid for any mineral like lead, zinc, copper or iron.
Iron for example is normally sold and transported as pellets or sponge iron = pure FE (ferro). It is the first refining step.
Being a process before export, the refinery (for example a steel plant) is naturally connected to the railway system - somewhere on the way between the mine and its port. The degree of refinement and post-processing: from raw material, to bars, blocks, rods, plates, sheets or tubes, etc. is a matter of the market and its prices.
Pellets explanation, Wikipedia: 'The process of pelletizing combines mixing of the raw material, forming the pellet and a thermal treatment baking the soft raw pellet to hard spheres. The raw material is rolled into a ball, then fired in a kiln or in travelling grate to sinter the particles into a hard sphere'.
There is a notable consumption of energy for the process.

corte para A4 papel  
- Electric trains too means electrificacion -

Trains powered by electricity

Trollybus is flexible in transit
[ img - trollybus.png ]
with its 2 conductors hanging above
electric train with pantograph
[ img - HectorRail.jpg ]
one conductor only and many pylons
- or a third rail for power
[ img - 3RailsTrain.jpg ]
located between the rails or on the side

There is no doubt that trains af today are powered by electricity.
They are electric due to their regenerative brakes (power generation)
They are electric because of their strong traction - at each wheel
They are electric because of their zero emission of toxic and greenhouse gases - with less damage to the Environment

100 years of experience with electrification of transport
Trains and trams are powered by electricity. The experience exists in a multitude of solutions around the world with all forms and combinations of voltages, frequencies and power systems.
There are many details to study - but in principle there are only 5 systems:
Klaus Lynge
    1): - two independent phases - two conductors hanging in the air
    2): - one conductor hanging in the air - the other by the rails
    3): - a third electrical rail on the side or underground to power the vehicle
    4): - a large battery (accumulator) to charge before - and possibly durinandedg the trip
    5): - or we simply change all the battery in fixed stations

Heavy trains are called "Heavy Haul"
Electric trains as those from the mines, we have known powered by an overhead conductor. There are more than 100 years of experience.
We also know trains operated by batteries (accumulators) but the experience of heavy haul trains with batteries is very scarce. Neither experience with mine railways between high mountains does not exist.
This is why we have been in dialogue with locomotive manufacturers, and the only valid remark is that the technology for these trains today is a rapid developing technology - as still not is matured.
Well - we too need some few years to prepare and build a mining railway, while - perhaps - the technology will mature.

Let's get technology proved - by years of use, please
The proposal of PUSAC sac is to acquire verified technology. It is our firm recommendation.
Technology verified by years of use somewhere in the world.
For electric trains the most verified and common technology is with a high voltage network extended along the route and feeding the moving trains by a conductor suspended in the air above the rails.
That is the classic solution.
The problem with this is the extension of the mining routes, as we are facing. There are 500 kilometers of distance between Marcona and Apurímac, and this seems a much to establish in a time where the technology of batteries - accumulators of electrical energy - is in full advance.
With battery locomotives pulling a battery powered tender, for example, the train could start its journey with a “full tank”, and we don't need catenary for many kilometers - and the locomotive maintains its autonomy.

The batteries are arriving
[ img - batteryFreight_train.jpg ]
too for freight trains
too electrification on roads and tracks
[ img - VolvoHeavyDutyTruck.jpg ]
electric Volvo truck - today with battery

A combined technology might be more viable for Peru
A combination of hanging conductors on a part of the route, where passing trains can recharge their batteries. If we could reduce the catenary span to 20% of the rail span, that would be a welcome reduction in cost and maintenance and that seems technically feasible.
Naturally, this will complicate a political decision around railways, because it will reduce the investment of ENAFER and force carriers to invest in battery-powered locomotives.
Against this: carriers keep their regenerated energy.
The argument for not electrify is that public infrastructure is not obliged to sell energy or fuel to carriers. On the other hand, we can look at energy supply as a service to the carriers - a business
Naturally we have to discuss this with some experienced operators and with the producers of Locomotives of the future before decision.

Fuel - in light of the History
Human history has allways shown problems with power supply during a trip.
Horses have increased their master's mobility - and have also been able to forage for their own pasture along the way.   cool!   A technically almost ideal solution.
Steam engines on ships and trains - have expanded transport capacity, but have needed their coal and water to keep on traveling -

the Falkland Islands of this reason were taken by the English Empire (before the great Panama and Suez canals) to create a strategic base with a station as could supply their imperial fleet with COAL before passing Cape Horn and start a long journey onto the Pacific Ocean.
We can imagine that England of today does not need the Falkland Islands as a deposit for coal, and this may be an option for Argentina to express its interest in an agreement between 2 countries, without provoking a new war.
"Better to seduce than to violate", that is what every man and woman knows - too in Argentina.
And everyone had preferred to see the Argentines seduce their chosen one - and not violate her.
What conditions the Argentines now may go to offer the Falkland Islands for a future together - what dowry they may offer the bride - that we are waiting to know - - -
Or are we talking about Imperialism versus Romance - and maybe against Self-Determination of the islands?

The Falkland Islands - 100 years ago
[ img - sail bogey-Falkland.jpg ][ img - 2£-Camber-Sailing-Wagon.jpg ]
"trains" propulsed by renovable energy:   the wind
An example of another fuel:   The Yavarí boat of Titicaca is the oldest iron ship in the world. Yavari was prepared in England around 1860 and then the thousands of pieces were transported by mule from the Pacific to the highlands, to be assembled on the Titicaca shore. At first, their boiler was fed by dry dung (KK for llama), because there is no firewood nor coal in the highlands.
Since 1911 Yavari has been sailing on a diesel Bolinder - and she continues to sail to this day.

The arrival of the diesel engine, burning oil in some form, has made it easier fuelling vehicles for long trips. For this reason there are many mining trains around the world running on this fuel.
TODAY diesel for motors is NOT an accepted technology in an ecological world   - That's one.
Nor can we generate or regenerate ANY diesel energy by lowering minerals from the height.   - That's another one.

Lately we have to to recognize, that Peru is a country where water is pouring down from all the mountains and is totally GRATIS, to a degree that allows us to generate enough electricity to supply all South America.
In any sense, Peru is a country filled up with "green energy" = energy inexhaustible - and in abundance.
There is energy from the sun in abundance. There is wind power by the current of the wind. And there is his brother, the current of the river. There is also available geothermal energy in Aguas Calientes and there is wave energy throughout the maritime territory. An ocean of ​​energy.
corte para A4 papel  
- a project known many years - and still actual -


[ img - rail-icon.png ]
With railways built for the mines, the rails are laid
- and these rails are also available to the people and their carriers along the entire line
- for their cargo and passenger transport -

Railroads - are a source for many Trashy Pseudo Studies
Example: The Public Tender No. 002-2018-MTC/10 - "Ferrocarril Puerto San Juan de Marcona - Andahuaylas"
Conclusion: There is no reason to get entangled and complicate our life by many "studies" done by the many consultants paid by many Governments.
We simply do NOT need more studies:  
Peru deserves RESULTS

The truth is, we already have enough of academic and theoretical studies of this famous mining railroad and its port in Marcona.
50 years we have known an access route (one among more) to penetrate the mountain ranges with a railway.
The Canadian project with its railway study: "PRELIMINARY FEASIBILITY STUDY of THE APURIMAC IRON ORE DEPOSIT, PERU" has been known since 1970 - and to date has led to nothing more than the following studies simply have copied the main points:
The same route between the mountain ranges - the same old railway technology - the same old thinking of our grandfathers.

The same with the port of Marcona, which has had its own Law 28521 since 2005. Not a step forward for implementation.
But note, that the discussion in the 'house of Law' since the time of president Toledo: San Juan Bay - or/and - San Nicolas? ?? This discussion is simply buried. Nobody dares to think about it, because the mineral port of San Nicolás is a Chinese concession. It is sacred.

In 1970 the construction price was calculated to 175 million US dollars - in the money of that time.
Today we need to multiply the same price with 50 years of inflation = a factor of 10 - or maybe 20 -
A more logical alternative is to re-calculate, but this would be needless until someone has made the fundamental decisions: which mines to connect, which towns to pass, which route to take, number of bridges and tunnels etc.
Quite simple: Which importance may we provide to this piece of infrastructure. (Are we talking a simple VW or a luxury Mercedes? ??)

Feasibility vs. strategic investments:
- they are different only by the horizon of the calculated pay back

The feasibility we know with certainty, because it is garantized by the flow from the mine concessions:
    "Without flow there is no business - and without business there is no investment" - and that we don't need to go on studying.
This rule is valid for mines as well as railways. And because mines are going to fight and create their flow to survive - this same flow is also going to serve as the basic flow for a railway

So. If we don't need more academic studies like 'feasibility', 'pre-feasibility' etc. The proposal of PUSAC is to change focus = change paradigm - change procedure - with the purpose to escape many errors and to gain time by speeding up the process of railway construction in Peru
- for the benefit of a
Peru that need to raise up again after the COVID knock down

A new approach (paradigm) towards Railways for Peru

In Peru we do NOT have railway engineers
- NOT with experience
The proposal of PUSAC is to start the "rail work" seeking 'Know How' abroad: Visit, study, choose and transfer the experience of mining trains operating in Australia, Brazil, Canada , Sweden - or wherever they are.

There is no doubt, that the lines - the traces, the known corridors - need to be checked by foreign experts in accordance with modern technology: Electric trains, "Heavy Haul" rails, large slopes and curves for high speed. A supervision carried out by experienced foreign builders and transferred to the Peruvian engineers
After having chosen and transferred technology to Peruvian engineers
then we can talk about self-construction of railways for a future
There is much more than civil and mechanical works. Within a technology package we also need a part of 'railway administration' - plus 'communication', inc. 'safety' and 'control with trains'

The proposal include sending a high-level commission to see in live and directly what solutions are working around the World - and then choose technology, systems, organization and maintenance to these models - to adapt a copy to the Peruvian reality.
After then we can go on with the Mandatory Tenders to fulfill what is decided - not before.

Just like in a restaurant:
First see the menu before choosing
- then eat
New Plan:   Work on hard and achieve the result
First look to learn what is possible in today's world in relation to mining railways
Then we choose what we want for our mines
- and from there we will transfer to the Peruvian reality.

Tomando en cuenta que una tren moderna con tracción de cada eje puede aguantar subir hasta 8% - y por esto puede pasar cordilleras por rutas más cortos y más directos.
Tomando en cuenta que trenes de hoy son electricos que puede generar y regenerar energía
Tomando en cuenta que transporte minero hoy pasan por rieles 'Heavy Haul' que aguantan una carga por cada rueda de 20 toneladas
Tomando en cuenta que vías férreas construídos para trenes mineros 'Heavy Haul' también sirve y debe servir para trenes de los pueblos
Tomando en cuenta que una ruta optima pasando las cordilleras políticamente necesita 'licencia social' de las sociedades
No olvide - si también desea viajar con alta velocidad - tu necesitas suavizar y inclinar cualquier curva angosta

OJO:  En todo este estamos hablando exclusivamente vía férreas como infraestructura

Material rodante como trenes, vagones y locomotores etc. es y debe ser responsabilidad de los transportistas
Igual los estaciones: Estaciones NO son infraestructura y por esto NO ES responsabilidad de una organización ferrocarrilero como ENAFER.
La vía férrea necesita una plataforma de 2 meteros de ancho para parar un tren y nada más

Y el resto de una estación con sus edificios, playas de estacionamiento, terminal de buses y taxis, centros comerciales, mercados, kioscos, sala de espera y servicios higiénicos etc. eso es la responsabilidad de la comunidad de construír en la amplietud que el pueblo desea.

Pusac web - updated 11th December 2022 - (the day called 'devil's birthday')