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Responsibilities - and their limits

Condition for expropriations:   "Necessity and public utility" (ref. Constitution PE §70)
Consequences:   The Southern Central Macroregion can build their Apurimac-Ayacucho-Ica railway - if the Macroregion decide.
Alternatively too a commonwealth of Regions /Municipalities along the route - can do it.
- and the regions of Cajamarca, Lambayeque and Piura together can construct a railway fromCelendín to Bayovar - if they want


task of the mine company:
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load wagons by silo and hopper
 
loading wagons by frontloader
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simple forms of pure iron
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pellets - or sponge iron
 
unload wagons in the port
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fx. by turning over the whole wagon
 
red - white ensign on the sea
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medium size bulk carrier

Infrastructure is everything as connect a country, a city, a society
Infrastructure of a country - any type of infrastructure - is the responsibility of society, and this is to be established by its elected or non-elected authorities.
A society cannot escape from this responsibility by concessions, privatizations or similar 'Neo-Liberal tricks', because infrastructure is what unite and connect the country - the society.

A NODE is a point in a infrastructure network - or between two networks
Within a node the owner has the authority to organize as he wants - but in accordance with the laws and rules of society - of course.
A landowner can make his track where he wants over his fields.   A districtal, provincial or regional authority can place its roads, their trams and railroads.   A "macro-region" can do the same.
The mines, who have bought, rented or granted their land, decide within the same plot. In principle they can exploit and sell as they want - and pay the State for what is extracted. A payment in relation of what type of ore is mined - naturally.
All equipment and buildings inside the mine lot is: Decision of the Mining Company. For example: Where to lay down their own RAILS for trains within the land of the mine itself. Where and how to load the wagons. By mobile rolling equipment - or by mechanized fixed installations of silos, hoppers and transportbands etc.
This is NOT the responsibility of society.

The surrounding society
Mining companies - regardless of their country of origin - are and have to be a natural part of society where they work, and they therefore must follow the same rules and common laws of society.
Inside a country the society itself alternatively a commonwealth of Regions/Municipalities as well.has to build the infrastructure, which the society needs: in this case the rails for trains - too mine trains. The responsibility of the ENAFER authority will start at the exit gate of the mine, and ENAFER will direct the train on all its network.

Who owns locomotive and wagons IS NOT business of ENAFER.
Nor is ENAFER going to drive these trains. Like trucks and buses on the highways, the trains are privately owned and come with their own driver.
The trains will pay tolls per ton, per train and/or per kilometer - and not for the value of the minerals.
The rule for everyone: That man as pays, he decides - to rent, to buy own train, to create a "United Transport Company" together with other mining companies or simply to hire a professional transport company - - - but all trains technically need to comply with ENAFER standards, just as any truck needs to meet the MTC regulations for transit.
If the final customer of the ore lives in Asia, the delivery of the ore is in Asia. For example: A contract with India to deliver 20 million tons of iron per year. This iron needs to be extracted from a mine in the mountains and then pass through a transport chain and perhaps some processings before being delivered to a port in India.

Processes placed between the mine and its export port.
Surely the mine is going to organize a refining process.
They do this simply because a mine does not want to pay for the transport of tons of earth and stones that have no value. That assumption is valid for any mineral like lead, zinc, copper or iron.
Iron for example is normally sold and transported as pellets or sponge iron = pure FE (ferro). It is the first refining step.
Being a process before export, the refinery (for example a steel plant) is naturally connected to the railway system - somewhere on the way between the mine and its port. The degree of refinement and post-processing: from raw material, to bars, blocks, rods, plates, sheets or tubes, etc. is a matter of the market and its prices.
Pellets explanation, Wikipedia: 'The process of pelletizing combines mixing of the raw material, forming the pellet and a thermal treatment baking the soft raw pellet to hard spheres. The raw material is rolled into a ball, then fired in a kiln or in travelling grate to sinter the particles into a hard sphere'.   There is a notable consumption of energy for the process.

The port and its equipment
Transportation from the mine is by raalternatively a commonwealth of Regions/Municipalities as well.il and ends at an export port. The mine decides which port for exportation, because the mine is the owner of the cargo. It is also the responsibility of the mine to organize reception of the mineral ore in the port, and there store it until a mineral bulker can arrive.
That include too a system to empty the wagons and deposit the material in silos. And for this reason the wagons are normally built as tippers which are to be emptied directly down into the store from a position above the silos - or alternatively into a receptor hopper and then lifted by a belt conveyor and dropped into a silo.
Silo storage requires another mechanical system to extract the ore bulk from the silo,for then to pass a shiploader with a capacity of a few thousand tons per hour to be able to load an ore bulker in a few days.

A long journey overseas
Well loaded, the ship will sail for salternatively a commonwealth of Regions/Municipalities as well.ome months to cross the sea and reach her destination, where she will unload the ore and return. With distances 15-20,000kM - x2 to return, there are probably a maximum of 4-6 trips per year for each ship.
Klaus Lynge
EUR ING
Peru has 2000 kilometers of coastline and 700,000 square kilometers which is its Maritime Territory = more than 50% of the Peruvian land area. However, Peru DOES NOT HAVE any maritime awareness. In the Peruvian ship roster there are around 30 ships available - and none of them are mineral carriers - and naturally all the 30 ships are occupied with other business.
It is a bit sad situation. Not being able to transport their own products, has as consequence, that Peru (= the Peruvian mines) need to hire foreign carriers (vessels) to make their oversea "delivery".
Fortunately, this situation is foreseen in Law 28,583 - "Law for Reactivation and Promotion of the National Merchant Marine" As a result of the Law, there is the option, that these foreign carriers, who have ships available, can fly their ships with the Peruvian flag, by registering their ships in the Peruvian registry. This transfer will give certain advantages to Peru. Especially if a congress decides to declare minerals from the mines as Peruvian, until delivered to the client abroad - or alternatively until the mineral has obtained some added value by processing in Peru.
It seems worth to compaire with "Jones Act", USA = Promotion and protection of the National Merchant Marine - of USA

cut for A4 paper  
Electric Trains too stand for electrificatión

Trains powered by electricity


Trollybus is flexible in transit
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with its 2 conductors hanging above
 
electric train with one conductor only
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note the pantograph and the many pylons
 
A third rail for power
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located between the rails or on the side
 
The batteries are arriving
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too for freight trains
 
electrification on roads and tracks
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electric Volvo truck - today with battery
 
The Falklands islands - 100 years ago
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wind-powered "trains"

There is no doubt that trains af today are powered by electricity.
They are electric due to their regenerative brakes (power generation)
They are electric because of their stalternatively a commonwealth of Regions/Municipalities as well.rong traction - at each wheel
They are electric because of their zero emission of toxic and greenhouse gases - with less damage to the Environment

100 years of experience with electrification of transport
Trains and trams are powered by electricity. The experience exists in a multitude of solutions around the world with all forms and combinations of voltages, frequencies and power systems.
There are many details to study - but in principle there are only 5 systems:
1): - two independent phases - two conductors hanging in the air
2): - one conductor hanging in the air - the other by the rails
3): - a third electrical rail on the side or underground to power the vehicle
4): - a large battery (accumulator) to charge before - and possibly durinandedg the trip
5): - or we simply change all the battery in fixed stations

Heavy trains are called "Heavy Haul"
Electric trains as those from the mines, we have known powered by an overhead conductor. There are more than 100 years of experience. We also know trains operated by batteries (accumulators) but the experience of heavy haul trains with batteries is very scarce. Neither experience with mine railways between high mountains does not exist. This is why we have been in dialogue with locomotive manufacturers, and the only valid remark is that the technology for these trains today is a rapid developing technology - as still not is matured.
Well - we too need some few years to prepare and build a mining railway, while - perhaps - the technology will mature.

Let's get technology proved - by years of use, please
As railway builder I don't like to recommend solutions, that are not solidly verified. I prefer what is known and well demonstrated. Nevertheless sometimes we need to install for test and beforehand calculate with an eventual mistake -
My personal experience as engineer and leader, recommending a new technology not yet 'stable' is, that it is expensive to make experiments and costly to get wrong - but it is NOT necessarily dangerous NOR fatal, because we can always take a step back.   ¿ quite EXPENSIVE?     at least it's not gratis -
In this case I don't like to hang up conductors along all the stretch between Marcona and Apurímac.
The best solution - the most suitable for mining trains between the Andes mountains I see as a combination of overhead conductors partial on the route - supplied with batteries on board the trains.
It is obvious, reducing the extent of an overhead conductor to 20% of railroad length - would be a very welcome reduction in cost and maintenance. And the transport companies keep their own regenerated energy.
Of course we have to discuss this with experienced operators and with the Locomotive producers of the future before deciding.

Fuel - in light of the History
The entire history of the human being has shown problems with the supply of energy during a trip.
The horses have extended their master's mobility - and too they have been able to forage their own pasture along the way.   cool!   A technically almost ideal solution.
Steam engines in ships and trains - have expanded the transport capacity, but have needed their coal and water to continue traveling -

Historically,
for this reason the Falkland Islands were captured by the English empire (before the great canals of Panama and Suez) to create a strategic base to supply their imperial fleets with COAL before passing Cape Horn and beginning a long trip into the Pacific Ocean.
We could imagine that England today does not need the Falkland islands as a coal deposit, and this would give a chance for Argentina to express its interests in a bilateral agreement between 2 countries, without to provoke a new war.
It is better to seduce than to violate, that is what any man and woman knows - too in Argentina.
And everyone has preferred to see the Argentines seduce their chosen one - and not violate her.
What conditions the Argentines now are going to offer to the Malvinas for a future together - what dowry to give the bride ? - that is what we are waiting to know - - -
Are we talking Imperialism, Romance - or maybe Self-determination for the islands ?

An example of another fuel:   The Yavarí ship at Titicaca lake is the oldest iron ship in the world. Yavarí was prepared in England around 1860 and then send as thousands of pieces as were transported on mule back from the Pacific to the highlands, to be assembled on the coast of lake Titicaca. From first, her boiler was fueled by dry manure (llama dropping), because there is no firewood or charcoal in the highlands.
Since 1911 Yavarí has ​​sailed with a Bolinder diesel - and continues to sail to this day.
The arrival of the diesel engine, burning oil in some form, has made itanded easier to supply vehicles for long journeys. This is why there are many mining trains around the world running on this fuel.

TODAY diesel for motors IS NOT an accepted technology in an ecological world   - That's one.
We neither can generate nor regenerate ANY diesel power by lowering minerals from highland.   - That's another.
At last we need to recognize, that Peru is a country where the water is running down all the mountains and totally GRATIS, to a degree that allows us to generate enough electricity to supply all of South America with energy.
In any sense, Peru is a country filled up with "green energy" = inexhaustible energy in abundance.
There is energy from the sun shining in abundance. There is wind power by the current of the wind. And there is his sister the current of the river. There is also geothermal energy available in Aguas Calientes (Hot Water) and there is wave energy throughout the maritime territory. A sea full of energy.

Pusac site - updated July 2022